Lasers, Optics, Photonics & Sensors 2021
(CPD Credits)

International Scientific Conference on Lasers, Optics, Photonics and Sensors (LOPS 2021)

PRELIMINARY PROGRAM

line-black

Jun 12, 2021 SCHEDULE

Conference Hall :
Coffee Break & Networking : 16:00-16:15
Lunch & Networking : 13:15-14:00
08:00

OPENING CEREMONY

08:00 - 09:00

09:00

INAUGURATION CEREMONY & MODERATOR GREETINGS

09:00 - 09:15

09:00

EXHIBITORS, SPONSORS, SUPPORTING PARTNERS REPRESENTATIONS

09:00 - 18:15

09:00

Alex Kazemi, ARK International LLC, Chairman LOPS 2021
Chief Scientific Committee, Keynote Speaker, LOPS 2021

Tiltle: Micro FBG Sensor Systems for Aircraft Wing Drag Optimization

Abstract

There is a great interest among aircraft manufactures to reduce fuel burn for new generation of airplanes. One important parameter to reduce fuel consumption is to improve aerodynamic efficiency. Micro FBG could improve fuel efficiency by mitigation of induced drag. The goal is to embedded micro FBG Sensing Network in the wing section of an aircraft, analysis and perform testing to meet the strict aviation standards and requirements. Due to immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), rapid response in real time, sensitivity and small size, FBG sensors have found many applications in structure health monitoring of aircrafts in past 20 years. The first fiber Bragg period gratings were successfully inscribed on an optical fiber in 1978. Since then, it is widely been used as temperature and strain measurements in aerospace applications.

In normal fiber, the refractive indices of the core and cladding do not change along the length of the fiber; however, by inducing a periodic modulation of refractive index along the length in the core of the optical fiber, the optical fiber grating is produced. This exhibits very interesting spectral properties and for this reason in this paper it is proposed to develop and integrate a distributed sensor network based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) technology which has grating periods on the order of 100 µm to 1 mm to be embedded in the wing section of aircraft to measure bending and torsion in real-time in order to measure wing deformation of commercial airplanes resulting in extensive benefits such as reduced structural weight, mitigation of induced drag and lower fuel consumption which is fifty percent of total cost of operation for airline industry.

The main objective is to optimize the design for material, mechanical, optical and environmental requirements of using micro FBG sensors embedded in the wing section of aircraft. Detail discussion is illustrated for analysis and evaluation of FBG integration using WDM multiplexing, system performance, qualification testing for  thermal cycling, aging, smoke, flammability, impact resistance, flexure endurance, tensile, vibration and shock.

 

 

View Biography

09:00 - 09:30

09:30

PROF. ROBERT ALFANO, The City College of New York, USA

Title: Ultra-supercontinuum broadening from self-phase modulation for isotropic condensed media with extremely intense femtosecond pulses. 

Ultra-supercontinuum (USC) broadening has been theoretically stimulated from the envelope response to the fifth- and third-order susceptibilities under the influence of an extremely high-intensity bright femtosecond laser pulse to produce extremme  spectra broadening changes extending from extreme X rays , XUV , UV , visble , NIR ,MIR , IR and THz to  even DC to fill  most of the  Maxwell Rainbow . 

The theoretical results show that an extremely high-intensity pulse as high as on the order of 1014~1016 W/m2 can influence the  refractive index arising from both  fifth-order susceptibility large enough that the nonlinear n4I02 term to overtakes the n2I0 term to produce the ultra-supercontinuum broadening in the liquids such as CS2 and rare gas liquids and solids such as Argon and Krypton. There has been experimental verification at lower intensities that the SC extends from, UV visible, NIR, to MIR by many researchers using various states of matter. This provides opportunity to extend SPM model from X rays to DC to form USC using extreme intensity pulses in four states of matter and generate attosecond pulses from other states of matter using the SPM model. .

Using the electronic response of n2 and n4   for extreme intensinies  of  laser pulses Carrier Evelope Phase  , HHG  generation can be  explained  in gases, and condensed matter.   This research is  performed  with Shah Fasisal Mazhar and Lingyan Shi 

About the Keynote Speaker

Robert Alfano is an Italian-American experimental physicist. He is a Distinguished Professor of Science and Engineering at the City College and Graduate School of New York of the City University of New York, where he is also the founding Director of the Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers (1982). He is a pioneer in the fields of Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy, Ultrafast lasers and optics, tunable lasers, semiconductor materials and devices, optical materials, biophysics, nonlinear optics and photonics; he has also worked extensively in nanotechnology and coherent backscattering. His discovery of the white-light supercontinuum laser is at the root of optical coherence tomography, which is breaking barriers in ophthalmology, cardiology, and oral cancer detection (see "Better resolution with multibeam OCT," page 28) among other applications. He initiated the field known now as Optical Biopsy He recently calculated he has brought in $62 million worth of funding to CUNY during his career, averaging $1.7 million per year. He states that he has accomplished this feat by "hitting the pavement"; he developed a habit of aggressively reaching out to funding partners and getting them interested in his work. Alfano has made discoveries that have furthered biomedical optics, in addition to fields such as optical communications, solid-state physics, and metrology. Alfano has an outstanding track record for achievements regarding the development of biomedical instruments. His contributions to photonics are documented in more than 700 research articles, 102 patents, several edited volumes and conference proceedings, and well over 10,000 citations. He holds 45 patents and published over 230 articles in the biomedical optics area alone. His discovery of the white-light supercontinuum laser is at the root of optical coherence tomography, which is breaking barriers in ophthalmology, cardiology, and oral cancer detection (see "Better resolution with multibeam OCT," page 28) among other applications. Alfano has trained and mentored over 52 PhD candidates and 50 post-doctoral students. For the past ten years, he has trained innumerable high school students in hands on photonics.

Areas of Expertise/Research Interests
Bonding of Tissues with Light Biomedical Optics and Detection of Cancer with Light Spectroscopy Expertise in Properties of Light and Photonics Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers Physics and Electrical Engineering Science and Engineering

View Biography

09:30 - 10:00

10:00

Peter J. Delfyett, Pegasus Professor, Trustee Chair Professor of Optics, EE & Physics, Director, Townes Laser Institute, CREOL, University of Central Florida, USA

Title: Ultrafast Photonics Techniques and Applications - Communication and Signal Processing at the Speed of Light

The development of high speed communication, interconnects and signal processing are critical for an information based economy.  Lightwave technologies offer the promise of high bandwidth connectivity from component development that is manufacturable, cost effective, and electrically efficient.  The concept of optical frequency/wavelength division multiplexing, i.e., using many different laser colors for transmitting information, has revolutionized methods of optical communication; however the development of optical systems using 100’s of wavelengths present challenges for network planners.  The development of compact, efficient optical sources capable of generating a multiplicity of optical frequencies/wavelength channels from a single device could potentially simplify the operation and management of high capacity optical interconnects and links.   Over the years, we have been developing “mode-locked” semiconductor lasers to emit ultrashort optical pulses at high pulse repetition frequencies for a wide variety of applications, but geared toward optical communication using time division multiplexed optical links.  The periodic nature of optical pulse generation from mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers also make these devices ideal candidates for the generation of a multiplicity of high quality optical wavelengths, or “optical frequency combs”, in addition to the temporally stable, high peak intensity optical pulses that one is accustomed to.  These optical frequency combs enable a variety of optical communication and signal processing applications that can exploit the large bandwidth and speed that ultrafast optical pulse generation implies, however the aggregate speed and bandwidth can be achieved by spectrally channelizing the bandwidth, and utilize lower speed electronics for control of the individual spectral components of the mode-locked laser.  This presentation will highlight our recent results in the generation of stabilized frequency combs, and in developing approaches for filtering, modulating and detecting individual comb components.  We then show how these technologies can be applied in signal processing applications such as arbitrary waveform generation, arbitrary waveform measurement, laser radar and matched filtering for pattern recognition.   

View Biography

10:00 - 10:30

10:30

NETWORKING SESSION & MORNING REFRESHMENTS

10:30 - 10:45

10:45

Manijeh Razeghi

Walter P Murphy Professor & Director, Centre for Quantum Devices
 North-western University, United States
Pioneer, Development & Implementation of major modern Epitaxial Techniques
 IBM Europe Science &Technology Prize
The SWE Lifetime Achievement Award
The R.F. Bunshah Award
The IBM faculty award
Jan Czochralski Gold Medal

.

About the Plenary Speaker
Manijeh Razeghi is the Walter P. Murphy Professor of Electrical Engineering at Northwestern University and Director of the Center for Quantum Devices, which she founded in 1991 after a successful 10-year career as the Director of Exploratory Materials at Thomson-CSF, France. She is one of the leading scientists in the field of semiconductor science and technology, having pioneered the development and implementation of major modern epitaxial techniques. Her current research interest is in nanoscale optoelectronic quantum devices from deep-UV up to terahertz. At Northwestern University she has commercialized aluminum-free pump lasers, developed type-II superlattices for next generation infrared imagers (an area in which she holds key patents), and currently holds most of the quantum cascade lasers records for high power and tunability. She has authored 18 books, 31 books chapters, and more than 1000 journal publications. She is editor, associate, and board member of many journals, including Nano Science and Nano technology. Her awards include the IBM Europe Science and Technology Prize, the SWE Lifetime Achievement Award, the R.F. Bunshah Award, the IBM faculty award, Jan Czochralski Gold Medal, and many best paper awards. She is a fellow of SWE, SPIE, IEC, OSA, APS, IOP, IEEE, and MRS.

View Biography

10:45 - 11:15

11:45

Title: Will be Updated soon
Kevin Knabe
Director of R&D
Vescent Photonics, USA

11:45 - 12:15

11:15

Title: Coherent poly propagation materials with 3-dimensional photonic control over visible light
Michelle R Stem,
Complete Consulting Services, LLC, Senior Materials Researcher, USA

Ground-breaking research has discovered a material that demonstrates three-dimensional control over photons. The newly identified property allowing three-dimensional visible light photonic control is called coherent poly propagation (CPP). This property is exhibited by a special silicate that is a rare form of a gemstone found in nature – opal. Dr. Michelle R. Stem discovered and examined several specimens of this incredible material and its amazing properties. Her research was published in the peer reviewed journal, PLOS ONE, on October 17, 2019 and can be read at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223715.

Apart from the iconic play-of-color that is typical of precious opal, these special silicate specimens exhibit the previously unknown property of CPP. CPP allows three-dimensional photonic control over visible light by causing the silicate specimens to perform a special diffraction of many types of incident visible light (mono and polychromatic photon sources). The CPP diffracted light accurately propagates multiple copies of the shape of an incident light source in visible light. The propagated shapes of incident light are able to be moved manually over the surfaces of the three-dimensional silicate specimens. CPP diffracted shapes visibly glide and rotate over the proximal (top) and/or distal (underside) surfaces of the specimen as the specimens are moved under an incident light. Generally, the CPP property causes a specimen to propagate multiple CPP diffracted shapes of a visible light source. While the CPP diffracted shapes sometimes propagate the colors of the incident light, they also sometimes propagate upconverted and/or downconverted incident light colors within the visible spectrum and as the CPP diffracted shapes are made to glide over the surface of a silicate specimen.

Surprisingly, these special silicates also exert a previously unknown photonic axial rotational symmetry on incident light. Yet, an amorphous material, such as opal, is expected to have too random an internal structure to exert a symmetry property. The symmetry operation may allow photonic computational (yes/no or one/zero) signals based on the orientation of the propagated image, in contrast to current electronic/magnetic methods.

The amazing properties of these materials occur under ambient conditions and without the need of external thermal, electrical and photonic (other than the incident light) input. This special opal material does not utilize or emit radiation or any other toxic or dangerous components. Further, the material is made of highly abundant silica.

Materials with CPP and/or axial symmetry properties have potential applications in many fields, such as security, communications, cryptography, imaging, projections, defense, computers, photonic waveguides, 3-d photonic control, microscopy, fiber optics, photonic wavelength demultiplexing and more:

  • Security, communications, cryptography and imaging (including multiple simultaneous wavelength transmissions (simulpathing) of tamper sensitive data, non-repudiation through selective wavelength masking and water-marking of image transmissions by adding or deleting specific wavelengths).
  • Projections and defense (including the ability to create real-time false ghost projections of high value assets, such as: military planes in-flight, drones, ground-based and other assets).
  • Computers, photonic waveguides and 3-d photonic control (including the simultaneous calculation/verification of critical data in a multi-optical processor environment, corresponding to a photonic version of the multi-electron-based processor systems currently deployed).
  • Microscopy (including enabling real-time simultaneous imaging over multiple wavelengths without the time-delay and computational vulnerability of current image processing).
  • Fiber optics (including photonic demultiplexing, reduction of signal loss by deployment via the creation of multi-cast capable fiber switches and routers to bypass the current electron conversion step and enable rotational shifting of transmitted fiber optic data with wavelength alteration).

Dr. Stem’s research demonstrates that photons can be controlled over three dimensions in silicate materials by altering the chromaticity of incident light and by changing the relative angle of the material to the viewer and the light source. This discovery is important as a big step towards surpassing some of the limitations of the slower and larger electrons that we currently use. The photonic control demonstrated by this material contradicts common assumptions that opal lacks the ability to display significant photonic properties over a macroscopic volume. A primary goal of future research will be to develop refined materials that display improved CPP and axial rotation properties so as to implement 3-d photonic control in devices.
 

This summary is largely derived from: https://www.rdworldonline.com/coherent-poly-propagation-materials-with-3-dimensional-photonic-control-over-visible-light upon author interest

About the Keynote Speaker

Dr. Michelle R. Stem has a Ph.D. in materials science engineering, MBA in management and B.S. in chemistry. Post-doc research and continued work as Senior Materials Researcher at Complete Consulting Services, LLC. Dr. Stem applies interdisciplinary expertise through multiscale analysis, computational modeling and laboratory synthesis to study extremely rare inorganic, complex and semi-conductor (ICS) materials. Dr. Stem researches ICS structural and property variations to discover and ultimately engineer new methods, applications, models, materials and metamaterials with the goal of controlling photonic, phononic, optoelectronic, band gap and other properties. In addition, Dr. Stem's research develops materials that save energy (e.g. power differentials for photonic band gap versus electronic materials) and finds alternatives to using up rare resources.

View Biography

11:15 - 11:45

12:15

Title: Will be Updated soon
Paul Westbrook
OFS Optics, USA

View Biography

12:15 - 12:45

12:45

Questionaries
Session Conclussions
Acknowledgements

12:45 - 13:00

13:00

Lunch & Networking Session @ CITRUS B 

13:00 - 13:45

13:45

Title: Will be Updated soon
Mahmoud Fallahi
Professor of Optical Sciences
The University of Arizona, USA

Mahmoud Fallahi is a professor in the college of optical Sciences at the University of Arizona. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Toulouse and LAAS-CNRS, in 1988. He joined the National Research Council of Canada in 1989 and became a member of technical staff as a Research Scientist during 1992-1995. He joined the University of Arizona as an Assistant professor in 1995. His recent research interests are in high power semiconductor lasers, tunable sources, nonlinear frequency generation, photonic integrated circuits, micro/nanofabrication, and hybrid organic-inorganic components for heterogeneous integration. He has over 200 publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals, international conference proceedings and invited talks. He has authored or co-authored several book chapters, patents and invention disclosures. He has served as Conference Chair and Program Committee member in several international conferences in the field of semiconductor lasers and integrated optics. He is also the co-founder of TPhotonics Inc. During August 2014 –Aug. 2017 he has been with the National Science Foundation (NSF) as a Program Director of the photonics program in the ECCS Division of Engineering Directorate, promoting and managing translational research programs in the field of optics and photonics.

View Biography

13:45 - 14:30

15:00

Boris Gramatikov
Ophthalmic Instrumentation Development Laboratory, Wilmer Eye Institute
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

Title: Ophthalmic polarization-sensitive diagnostic technologies employing retinal birefringence scanning.

Retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) has recently been used to detect central fixation and proper eye alignment in ophthalmic diagnostics. It utilizes the property of the Henle fibers surrounding the human fovea to change the polarization state of light in a double-pass polarization-sensitive optical system.  This principle has been employed in a series of vision screeners developed in our lab.  They allow eye tracking and detection of central fixation using anatomical information directly from the fovea and without calibration, unlike other eye tracking methods that employ less accurate pupillary light reflex methods. In a binocular setting, RBS facilitates precise checking for eye alignment. These instruments have proven to be valuable in early detection of amblyopia and strabismus. Such systems are particularly useful when working with young children.  The presentation focuses on a family of pediatric vision screeners and includes design optimization using a computer model of polarization-sensitive systems.

The usage can be expanded to add a fixation detection function to other ophthalmic technologies, such as laser-doppler flowmetry, fundus cameras, OCT devices, etc.  As an example, a hybrid system integrating optical coherence tomography and retinal birefringence scanning is presented. It acquires and/or analyzes data only during moments of central fixation. This can significantly reduce the image processing time, and shorten the exam duration. Methods to attract the subject’s attention and ensure fixation are also discussed.

Special attention is paid to possible implementation of no-moving-part technologies, liquid crystal technologies, and clinical testing. Related topics will be discussed, such as automatic detection and correction of ocular defocus in vision screening, laser safety, decision making logic, and others.

The talk will be interesting to ophthalmologists, optometrists, medical students, biomedical engineers and physicists, as well as health care managers and general practitioners.

About the Keynote Speaker

Boris Gramatikov obtained his Dipl.-Ing. degree in Biomedical Engineering in Germany, and his Ph.D. in Bulgaria. He has completed a number of postdoctoral studies in Germany, Italy and the United States. He joined the faculty of the Biomedical Engineering Department of The Johns Hopkins University in 1996, and has been working in the Laboratory of Ophthalmic Instrumentation Development at The Wilmer Eye Institute since 2000. His areas of expertise include electronics, optoelectronics, computers, computer modeling, signal/image processing, data analysis, instrumentation design, biophotonics, ophthalmic and biomedical optics, polarization optics, all applied to the development of diagnostic methods and devices for ophthalmology and vision research. His team has developed a series of pediatric vision screeners. He has over 120 publications, 41 of which in high-impact peer-reviewed journals. He serves as a reviewer and editorial board member with a number of technical and medical journals.

View Biography

15:00 - 15:30

15:30

 Title: Review on the progress of nano-sensors for hydrogen leaks – Nanostructured sensors based on palladium nanoparticle
Nicolas Javahiraly,  
University of Strasbourg/ ICUBE Institute, France

Abstract

Hydrogen seems to be one of the alternative ecological sources of energy related to numerous industries. It is presented as the sustainable energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen may be used to produce, store and transport energy and its possible applications are wide ranging. The industry based on the use of gaseous hydrogen has to meet the safety standards connected to the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen and to its operating conditions (pressure and temperature range). Hydrogen is a flammable and highly explosive gas: the lower flammability point is 4% in air going up to an upper limit of 74.5% and the ignition energy in air is as low as 0.02 mJ. The present hydrogen detectors use electrical sensors that may be subject to short-circuits and produce sparks. In order to eliminate this risk, for example, optical sensors appear as a sensible alternative for hydrogen detection. They exhibit sensitivity and response time equivalent to electrical devices without involving hazardous conducting parts. Moreover, they are intrinsically insensitive to electromagnetic perturbations.  This review is devoted to describing the recent progress in the innovative nano-sensors for hydrogen leak detection exploiting the properties of Palladium nanoparticles or nanostructured designs to bring a real breakthrough into detection performances.  
Keywords: Hydrogen, sensors, review. 

About the Keynote Speaker

Nicolas Javahiraly is an associate professor in physics at the University of Strasbourg. He did his PhD in Photonics at the same university on fiber optic sensors. After a post-doc at Harvard University on the interaction between ultra-short laser pulses and matter, he worked as a project manager and expert in the Sagem Defense group in Paris. He joined the University of Strasbourg in 2007 and is currently working on nano-optical sensors and plasmonics for various applications such as gas detection, pollutants detection and photoconversion systems for example.

View Biography

15:30 - 16:00

16:00

Refreshments & Networking Session @ MAGNOLIA HALWY

16:00 - 16:25

Lingyan Shi, UCSD bioengineering, United States

Title:  Visualizing Metabolic Activities in Cells and Animals  with High Resolution Vibrational Imaging.

Understanding the dynamics and heterogeneity of metabolism in a single cell or a multicellular organism is essential to unraveling the mechanistic basis of many biological processes. It is the synthesis, transformation and degradation (the definition of metabolism) of biomolecules that carry out the genetic blueprint. Traditional imaging methods such as MRI, PET, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry have fundamental limitations, for example, conventional methods can only detect the early stages of glucose metabolism (catabolism), but cannot monitor or visualize the process from glucose anabolism to different macromolecule synthesis in situ.

Being an emerging non-linear vibrational imaging microscopy technique, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) can generate chemical specific imaging in situ with high resolution, deep penetration, and quantitative capability. In the present work, we developed new methods that combine deuterium (D)-labeled metabolites (such as heavy water, D-glucose, D-fatty acids, and D-amino acids) probing and SRS microscopy to visualize metabolic dynamics in live cells and animals. The incorporation of D-labeled metabolites into new biomolecules would carry the carbon-deuterium (C-D) bonds into macromolecules including proteins, lipids, DNA/RNA, and carbohydrates. Within the broad vibrational spectra of C-D bonds, we discovered macromolecule-specific Raman shifts and developed spectral unmixing methods to obtain C-D signals with macromolecular selectivity. Applying this method, we were able to study the myelination in the postnatal mouse brain, identify tumor boundaries, examine the intra-tumoral metabolic heterogeneity, and differentiate protein/lipid metabolism during aging process. This technology platform is non-invasive, universal applicable, and can be adapted into a broad range of biological studies such as development, aging, homeostasis, tumor progression, and more.

About the Speaker

Dr. Lingyan Shi’s pioneering work in developing and applying novel optical techniques has led to a number of significant breakthroughs in biophotonics with major implications for the fields of neuroscience and cancer research and is allowing us to visualize the mechanisms underlying everyday processes and disease. One of Dr. Shi’s most significant discoveries has been the development of a new experimental technique that combines heavy water labeling and a relatively new imaging method, stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, to probe the metabolic activities of living tissues at subcellular resolution in situ. This discovery facilitates the visualization of tumor boundaries, embryonic development, and even aging in biological tissue. Another significant scientific contribution is her discovery of the “Golden Optical Window” – a unique band of infrared wavelengths that can penetrate deeper into biological tissues than other wavelengths of light during imaging, thereby dramatically increasing the imaging depth possible in brain tissue by as much as 50%. In addition, Dr. Shi has developed an early-detection spectral technique that could provide doctors with a tool for the early-stage detection of Alzheimer’s disease.

View Biography

Linda Olafsen, Baylor University, United States
2018: Outstanding Faculty Award
Chair, Congressional Visits Day subcommittee

Title: Optical Pumping and Reduction of Droop in Interband Cascade Lasers

Lasers comprised of antimonide-based semiconductor materials are designed to emit efficiently in the 3–6 micrometer wavelength range, an atmospheric transmission window that is eye safe and in which chemical sensitivities are 100–10,000 times better than at shorter wavelengths. In particular, the interband cascade laser employs repeated stages to yield multiple photons per injected electron, as compared with a single photon per injected electron in conventional quantum well lasers. However, even with the significant advances achieved utilizing wave function engineering in these semiconductor heterostructures, declining efficiency with increasing current (droop) at high temperatures limits the power output of these lasers. Optical pumping has been used to demonstrate lasing in interband cascade lasers, and this excitation technique is being applied to isolate efficiency limiting mechanisms and subsequently improve future laser designs. Integration of graphene layers with high electrical, optical, and thermal conductivity on gallium antimonide semiconductor surfaces also will be presented, with the goal of applying these transparent contact layers to further enhance efficiency, as well as to provide a deeper understanding of the integration of 2D and 3D materials.  

View Biography

Questionaries
Session Conclussions 
Acknowledgements   
Day 1 Closing Ceremony 

Johannes Kunsch, Laser Components GmbH, Germany

Title: Recent Progress and Possible Trends in Infrared Technologies

The 1st and 2nd Global Talks on infrared topics were held on December 1-2, 2020, and January 19-20, 2021, as live online event. There were two sessions per day at one hour each with a total of 49 speakers and chairs from 14 countries. No sessions ran in parallel. More than 800 attendees from 35 countries followed the live event which can be streamed as well. The event brought together researchers, industry and end users and tries to approach infrared technology as a whole. Therefore, a rough estimate on progress and possible trends becomes possible by using our database of six previous IR WORKshops for comparison.

The QC laser-based non-invasive glucose monitor was a major contribution to the program. Spectroscopic basics, the schedule for ramping up to a smartphone-size device as well as competitive end-user pricing were presented. [3,4] Also, the following question to the community was raised: A small blood count based on FTIR is possible and the knowledge has been there for a while. So, why is there no instrument available?

The development of the Cr:ZnS fs laser is a major step towards the generation of mid-infrared ultrashort pulses with high power and low noise. This laser yields infrared power comparable to a synchrotron, but with extremely low noise. [5] At the end, broadband measurements over up to 10 decades become possible in combination with phase-resolved spectroscopy. [6] The advantages of phase-resolved spectroscopy, like stable base line, have been emphasized in another paper as well. Here, an external cavity QC laser was used as tunable light source. [7] It has been discussed in earlier events already, that the mid infrared suffers from bad knowledge of material parameters like the complex part of the refractive index preventing precise simulation. Those new technologies should be a great help in closing this gap.      

A technological breakthrough was presented with a 768x512 pixels near infrared camera with 5 µm pitch. This camera targets to bring the price down since it is designed for a wafer-level process. [8] It uses a thin-film photodetector with PbS quantum dots that peak at 1.45 µm. Speaking on lead salt detectors, new light was shed on the basic function of polycrystalline PbSe photodetectors that have been out in the world for decades and still do outperform modern bandgap-engineered detectors in certain aspects. Modern investigations suggest a mostly uniform current across grains and connecting tissues and a PbI2/PbSe isotype heterojunction based on hole transport. [9] 
Miniaturization by MEMS has been an infrared trend for a long time already. Here are 4 recent examples: At first, an MOEMS-based external cavity QC for real-time spectroscopy was presented [10]. Secondly, an on-chip polymer waveguide with 10 x 25 mm size was presented in order to replace bulky multipass cells. [11] Thirdly, the first palm-sized mid infrared FTIR platform was presented at the end of a tutorial on FTIR basics. [12] Last but not least, the specimen to be investigated and the infrared detector have been married into nanostrings and nanotrampolines covered with micelles. The readout signal is a detuning. A universal infrared thermal detector that targets photon-noise limits has been reported as well. Here, the micelles were replaced by gold nanoparticles. [13]

There is significant progress and activity on dielectric infrared optical components and materials. Five optical suppliers presented, which is a new record. Finally, the CO2 laser, which is still the most widely used infrared laser, does have its notch filter! [14,15] This has been standard in the visible and near infrared for a long time.  

Papers that simplify existing instruments or make them more rugged and/or cheaper have always been promoted by our events: A common-path interferometer was introduced to make FTIR mechanically more robust. [16] Furthermore, compressive single-pixel imaging in the NIR that uses a fixed spatial modulator was successfully demonstrated. Image reconstruction is based on mathematics that uses a number of subsequent events. In some aspect this means, that the information is hidden in the noise. Additional insertion of a tunable filter does result in hyperspectral imaging. [17]

References:

[1] 1st Global Infrared Sessions, December 1-2, 2020, https://bit.ly/irsessions1
[2] 2nd Global Infrared Sessions, January 19-20, 2021, https://bit.ly/irsessions2
[3] Basics of Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications for the Analysis of Body Fluids and Advantages over Proxy Methods, Werner Mäntele, see [1]
[4] Say “Goodbye” to test strips: Non-invasive blood sugar monitor, Thorsten Lubinski, see [1]
[5] Multi-octave-spanning simultaneous infrared coverage driven by emerging Cr:ZnS laser systems, Kafai Mak, Nathalie Nagl, Qing Wang, Markus Poetzlberger, Philipp Steinleitner, Aleksandar Sebesta, Shizhen Qu, Vladimir Pervak, and Ferenc Krausz, see [1]
[6] Field-resolved Mid-infrared Spectroscopy, Marinus Huber*, Michael Trubetskov, Wolfgang Schweinberger, Syed A. Hussain, Christina Hofer, Mihaela Zigman, Ioachim Pupeza and Ferenc Krausz, see [1]
[7] Laser Based Mid-IR Dispersion Spectroscopy of Liquid Samples, Bernhard Lendl, see [1]
[8] Progress Towards PbS Quantum Dot Based Hi-res / Low-cost SWIR Imagers, Pawel E. Malinowski, Epimitheas Georgitzikis, Vladimir Pejovic, Luis Moreno Hagelsieb, Griet Uytterhoeven, Jiwon Lee, Yunlong Li, Steven Thijs, Tom Verschooten, Myung Jin Lim, Itai Lieberman, David Cheyns, see [1]
[9] Understanding Behavior of Lead Salt Photoconductors, Davorin Babic, see [2]
[10] MOEMS-based External Cavity QCLs and their application in real-time spectroscopy, M. Haertelt, S. Hugger, Y. V. Flores, C. Schilling, S. Adler, P. Holl, A. Merten, M. Schwarzenberg, A. Dreyhaupt, see [2]
[11] Latest results on gas sensing with on-chip waveguides, Marek Vlk, Aurup Datta, Jana Jágerská, Ganapathy S. Murugan, see [2]
[12] Sensor-Scale FTIR Spectrometers, Yasser Sabry, see [1]
[13] Nanoelectromechanical Photothermal Infrared Spectroscopy, N. Luhmann, R. Pliessnig, M. Piller, M.-H. Chien, J. P. Lafleur and S. Schmid, see [2]
[14] Infrared filters, Jason Palidwar, see [2]
[15] Advancements in IR Coating Technology, Patrick M. Carney and Patrick M. Brown, see [1]
[16] Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy, Microscopy and Hyperspectral Imaging using an Ultra-Stable Interferometer, Fabrizio Preda, see [1]
[17] NIR hyperspectral single pixel imaging, Paul Gattinger, see [1] or: Gattinger et al., “Broadband near-infrared hyperspectral single pixel imaging for chemical characterization,” Opt. Express, vol. 27, no. 9, p. 12666, Apr. 2019. (Note: This presentation is missing on the recording because of a malfunction. Therefore, a second reference is given.)

View Biography

Ioannis (John) Kymissis

Kenneth Brayer Professor of Electrical Engineering
Chair, Department of Electrical Engineering
Columbia University SEAS
NSF CAREER award
IEEE EDS Paul Rappaport award
Vodaphone Americas Foundation Wireless Innovation Award
MIT Clean Energy Prize
Verizon Powerful Answers award

Title: MicroLEDs and OLEDs for Non-Display Applications.
    
  

The majority of applications for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and micro light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) have achieved their goal as displays once light is emitted.  There are a variety of applications, however , in which the emitted light can further be used to probe or sense. In this talk, I will highlight a number of recent non-display applications for µLEDs before looking forward to other possibilities in biosensing and electronic applications in the future.

View Biography

Haishan Zeng
University of British Columbia, Canada
Prism Award (Life Sciences & Biophotonics- 2013 by SPIE
University of British Columbia, Canada

In vivo multiphoton microscopy and multiphoton absorption based laser therapy

View Biography

John M. Ballato
J. E. Sirrine Textile Foundation Endowed Chair, Optical Fibers Professor, Clemson University, United States
Member, World Academy of Ceramics
U.S. National Academy of Inventors

Title:Fascinating materials science for advanced optical fibers
With hundreds of millions of kilometers fabricated world-wide each year, optical fibers are ubiquitous enablers of many modern technologies. However, the ever-present demand for enhanced performance has brought about a renaissance in fiber optics materials, their methods of fabrication, and the range of properties one can achieve. This lecture will provide a brief history of optical fibers, conventional fiber materials and manufacturing methods, as well as their limitations. Following this, newer considerations and applications, such as those relating to datacomms, high energy (fiber) lasers, and infrared fiber sources will be discussed, with a focus on enabling fiber materials and processing.

Biography
John Ballato is a Professor of materials science and engineering at Clemson University (Clemson, SC), where he also holds the J. E. Sirrine Endowed Chair in Optical Fiber. He has published over 450 technical papers and holds 34 U.S. and foreign patents. Among numerous other honors, he is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the American Physical Society (APS), the Optical Society of America (OSA), the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE), and the American Ceramic Society (ACerS), as well as an elected member of the World Academy of Ceramics and the U.S. National Academy of Inventors.

 

 

View Biography

Davorin Babic
Laser Components DG, Inc. Chandler, United States

Title: Lead Selenide Transport and Conductivity Mechanism      

Lead selenide (PbSe) photoconductors are very popular type of lead salt photodetectors in the infrared spectrum because of their excellent room temperature operation, outstanding price to performance ratio and large detector area manufacturability. Main application areas of the PbSe photodetectors are medical and environmental gas analysis, process control, flame and fire detection and optical pyrometry. However, their photoconductive and carrier transport mechanism has not been well understood so far. Laser Components DG, Inc. (LCDG) is a leading vendor of the PbSe photodetectors and fabricates PbSe polycrystalline thin film detectors using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. After the deposition, the thin film PbSe detectors are sensitized by oxidation and iodization. The completed LCDG detectors have sheet resistance values of about 1 MΩ per square. In order to ascertain the photoconductive and transport mechanisms of the LCDG detectors they have been characterized by a number of material characterization and electro-optic techniques. The characterization results suggest that only p-type PbSe detectors are photosensitive and that their photoconductivity is based on majority hole carrier transport. The PbSe detector thin films consist of grains and connecting tissue. The grains are lead selenide while the connecting tissue is a combination of lead selenide and lead oxide, likely as PbSeO3. The I-V characteristics of the completed PbSe are very linear pointing to no barrier related hole transport that takes place in the connecting tissue. The oxidation of a deposited PbSe film is required for its photosensitivity but introduces substantial nonlinearity and dramatic changes in its hole mobility. The iodization restores linearity of the I-V characteristics and substantially increases photosensitivity of the PbSe photodetectors. The characterization results fully support the number modulation model while being inconsistent with the recently proposed charge separation junction model.

Acknowledgement

The author wishes to acknowledge his collaborators on this project: G.-P Chen, Y.-H. Zhang (both from Arizona State University) and L.W Johnson, J. J. San Roman and D. Grubišić (all from LCDG).

Keywords: Lead selenide photodetectors, photoconductive and transport mechanism

View Biography

Andrei Afanasev
The George Washington University, United States

Title: Novel Propagation Modes of Twisted Light in Spatially Dispersive Matter.

Abstract

Polarization of matter induced by electromagnetic fields may have two kinds of dispersion: (a) frequency dispersion and (b) spatial dispersion.

The former results in a well-known frequency-dependent refractive index of materials, while the latter leads to dependence on light’s wave vector, or spatial derivatives of the fields (in position space) and leads to effects like optical activity. The reason behind spatial dispersion is in non-local relation between the applied fields and resulting polarization of dielectric matter. We analyze effects of spatial dispersion on propagation of structured light waves and demonstrate possible new effects. In particular, we show that phase singularities effectively change the refractive index across the transverse beam profile, leading to dichroic effects and possibly novel propagation modes.

View Biography

Davoud DorranianScience and Research Branch
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran > Laser Lab., Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Title: Review on lasers synthesis and processing of nanostructures   

Lasers are one of the effective tools to improve material processing. The laser beam cuts thick metals more finely than any cutter machine. The laser beam drills thick steels more accurately than any drill. Without lasers, welding technology was imperfect. Furthermore, printing, forming, and holograming are other roles of lasers in material processing. The present century began with the rapid development of nanotechnology, which opened new fields for laser applications in material science.  In this short review, I am going to present my works on laser synthesis and processing of nanostructures include nanoparticles (Au), nanocomposites (TiO2), nanoalloys (Au/TiO2), MOFs (MOF5; metal-organic framework compound with the formula Zn₄O(BDC)₃) and graphene. The physical mechanisms, responsible for production of different forms of nanostructures will be discussed in detail. The fundamental wavelength/second harmonic of Nd-YAG laser at 1064 nm/532 nm and 7 ns pulse width was employed to carry out the experiments via pulsed laser ablation process in liquid environment. The laser fluence, repetition rate, as well as the liquid environment are powerful tools by which the regime of laser ablation and the ablation products can be controlled.   Variety of diagnostics were employed to study the characteristics of nanostructures after their production. UV-Vis-NIR absorption and transmission spectroscopies were used to investigate the optical properties of nanostructures. Their molecular bonds and crystalline structure were studied using FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction pattern respectively. And size and morphology of synthesized nanostructures were observed by TEM and SEM images.  Results confirm that pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) is a capable method to synthesize different forms of materials in nano dimension.  PLAL is a friendly environment and easy method for material processing in atmospheric pressure. Composition, size, morphology, and other properties of nanomaterials can be easily controlled by PLAL parameters such as laser wavelength, laser pulse width, laser spot size, as well as liquid environment parameters.           

View Biography

Aliasghar Ajami Semnan University, Iran

Title: Dispersive White Light Supercontiuum Single Z-scan:   A new method to determine the two-photon absorption spectrum.            

Two-photon absorption (2PA) has attracted many researchers due to its unique potential for those special applications which is not feasible based on linear absorption. Therefore, determining the 2PA coefficient/cross section is of most important.  
Many different methods have already been proposed for determining the 2PA coefficient within which the Z-scan technique have been used extensively.[1] In traditional Z-scan method the 2PA coefficient is determined at a Sigle wavelength produced by the laser source employed in the setup. For most 2PA based applications, it is highly required to determine the 2PA spectrum to find out the peak 2PA absorption. To this end, different methods have been proposed:
1- Z-scan using a tunable laser: Applying this method yields to obtain the 2PA spectra via pointby-point which is cumbersome and time-consuming.[2] 2- Using a White light supercontiuum (WLC) source with a series of narrow band filters. This is also a point-by-point measurement which is cumbersome and time-consuming.[3] 3- Using nondispersive WLC Z-scan: in this method it is not feasible to determine the pure degenerate 2PA spectra since both degenerate and non-degenerate processes simultaneously occur.[4] 4- Using dispersive WLC without scan: In this method the obtained 2PA spectrum is although of degenerate nature, it represents the relative, but not the absolute value of the 2PA cross section.[5]  
5- Our proposed technique: A unique method, by which the absolute visible-to-near-infrared degenerate 2PA spectra can be determined via performing a dispersive WLC single Z-scan. This technique can be used for a rapid determination of the wavelength-resolved 2PA spectra of any nonlinear medium ranging from semiconductors to organic solutions

View Biography

Jun 13, 2021 SCHEDULE

Conference Hall :
Coffee Break & Networking : 16:00-16:15
Lunch & Networking : 13:15-14:00
08:00

OPENING CEREMONY

08:00 - 09:15

09:15

EXHIBITORS, SPONSORS, SUPPORTING PARTNERS REPRESENTATIONS

09:15 - 18:30

09:15

Syed H. Murshid
Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Florida Tech, United States
Florida's 5th most influential scientists
Florida Trend magazine (November 2004)
Postdoctoral Fellow, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Florida Institute of Technology, 1997-1998

View Biography

09:15 - 17:00

09:45

Title: Plasmonic micro sensor for pesticides detection 
Nicolas Javahiraly
University of Strasbourg ICUBE Institute, France

Abstract
Micro pollutants are substances found in trace amounts in water, air and soil. Generally toxic, they can be of all kinds: mineral, organic or biological. We will focus here on a specific class of micro pollutant: pesticides. On March 20, 2015, the World Health Organization’s cancer agency classified five pesticides as "possible" or "probable" human carcinogens. Among these five pesticides is glyphosate, which is the most widely used pesticide in the world.  
Furthermore, the detection of micro pollutants by new innovative systems is one of the important issues of our society. This study is dedicated to innovative pollutant micro sensors exploiting the interaction properties between light and original nanostructured materials, in order to create a real jump in performance in terms of detection limit, quantification and sensitivity. The detection of our pesticide is based on the variation of the optical properties of the materials used in the presence of the molecule to be detected. We propose two ways of investigation that are (i) the Surface Plasmon Resonance detection (SPR) in Kretschmann configuration and (ii) the use of an original functionalized nano-structured organization based on the use of functionalized gold nanoparticles.  
Keywords: Plasmonics, micro pollutant detection, nano structured materials. 

About the Speaker: 

Nicolas Javahiraly is an associate professor in physics at the University of Strasbourg. He did his PhD in Photonics at the same university on fiber optic sensors. After a post-doc at Harvard University on the interaction between ultra-short laser pulses and matter, he worked as a project manager and expert in the Sagem Defense group in Paris. He joined the University of Strasbourg in 2007 and is currently working on nano-optical sensors and plasmonics for various applications such as gas detection, pollutants detection and photoconversion systems for example.

View Biography

09:45 - 10:15

10:15

Networking Session, Morning Refreshments @ MAGNOLIA HALWY

10:15 - 10:30

10:30

Title: Will be Updated soon
Syed H. Murshid
Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Florida Tech, USA

Awards
Named one of Florida's five most influential scientists, Florida Trend magazine, November 2004.
Postdoctoral Fellow, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida Institute of Technology, 1997-1998

Patents
International Patent: Murshid Syed and Rumpf Raymond “Fiber Optic Fabry-Perot interferometers and associated methods” European Patent Office June, 2006.
US Patents: Murshid S., and Lovell G., "All-optical spatial domain multiplexing de-multiplexer" United States Patent No. 9,529,147, December 27, 2016.
Murshid S., and Finch M., "Omnidirectional free space optical communications receiver" United States Patent No. 9,515,729, December 6, 2016.
Murshid S., and Khayrattee A., "Orbital angular momentum in spatially multiplexed optical fiber communications" United States Patent No. 8,396,371, March 12, 2013.
Murshid S., “Array of concentric CMOS photodiodes for detection and de-multiplexing of spatially modulated optical channels” United States Patent No. 8,278,728, October 2, 2012
Murshid S., et al “Methods and apparatus for spatial multiplexing in optical communication”. (7,639,909) December 2009.
Murshid S., Grossman B., Narakorn P., “Methods and apparatus for spatial domain multiplexing in optical fiber communications”. (7,174,067). February 06, 2007.
Rumpf R and Murshid Syed, “Fiber Optic Fabry-Perot interferometers and associated methods”. (6,886,365), also awarded International patent on a similar invention. May 03, 2005.
Murshid Syed H., “Fiber optic level detection system.”(6,801,678) October 05, 2004.

View Biography

10:30 - 11:00

11:00

Title: low noise random fiber laser
Xiaoyi Bao
Professor, F RSA, F OSA, F SPIE
Canada Research Chair in Fiber Optics and Photonics (Tier I),
University of Ottawa, Canada

 

11:00 - 11:30

11:30

Title: Will be Updated soon
YU, BING, Medical College of Wisconsin, USA

11:30 - 12:00

13:00

LUNCH BREAK & NETWORKING KIT DISTRIBUTION AND SESSION

13:00 - 13:45

14:15

A novel nanocomposite based on 2D nanosheets, Ti3C2 MXene and 1D nanowires, KxWO for application in diabetes care
Danling Wang, North Dakota State University, United States

Abstract

Acetone existing in human breath is an effective biomarker of diabetes, which can be used for the early diagnosis and daily monitoring of diabetes. Comparing to the conventional method for diabetes diagnosis and monitoring that analyzes the blood glucose level in blood, detection of breath acetone is a very need of a method in view of its merits such as non-invasive, accurate, convenient, and inexpensive. Recently, our group has reported a new breath acetone sensor based on a novel nanostructured KxW7O22 (KxWO) which exhibits a very sensitive response to acetone at the room temperature. The lowest concentration of acetone can be detected down to 1.2 ppm with response time of 12 s. However, considering the screening purpose of diabetes, concentration of acetone 0.76 ppm is the key threshold to distinguish health person and highrisk of diabetes person. In order to increase the sensitivity of acetone detection furtherly, a new nanocomposite made by 2-D MXene, Ti3C2 nanosheets and 1D KxWO has been recently synthesized in our group. The initial sensing testing shows excellent acetone response, which can be down to 0.2 ppm. On the other hand, due to good electric conductivity of Ti3C2 nanosheets, the acetone sensor based on Ti3C2-KxWO has stable electric property and exhibits excellent selectivity as well. This study can improve the understanding of the new material and its acetone sensing mechanism, and thus give ideas for further increasing the sensitivity for acetone detection, eventually resulting in an advanced material capable to analyze acetone in the exhaled breath for disease diagnosis and monitoring purpose.

About the Speaker 
Danling Wang is an Assistant Professor of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at North Dakota State University, where she has been since 2016. Dr. Wang graduated from Department of Electrical Engineering in University of Washington, Seattle, in 2014. Since 2008, her research is focused on investigation of portable chemiresistive sensors particularly based on nanostructured materials such as metal-oxide semiconductors in application to explosive detector in industry and military, and breath analyzer for early stage disease diagnosis. The theme of her research is to create high performance sensor devices through exploring the relationships between the composition/structure of materials and their electric, optical and electrochemical properties and studying the interaction between gas molecules and a solid-state film. The main goal of her research is to deliver in-depth fundamental research with regard to sensor materials and devices in application of disease diagnosis, health status monitoring, industrial and food safety

View Biography

14:15 - 14:45

13:45

Title: PAM-4 Data Transmission using Modulation Instability Frequency Combs on a Kerr Microresonator platform
Chinmay Shirpurkar
CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics
University of Central Florida, USA

Abstract
 

Optical frequency combs have found their applications in many areas over the past decade. One type of comb generation observed in microresonators which relies on the Kerr effect has been of particular interest in many areas of ultrafast optics due to the advantages of having a broad comb bandwidth and low threshold powers for parametric gain. These Kerr optical frequency combs have been used in a wide variety of applications including spectroscopy, frequency metrology, LIDAR, microwave to optical links and optical communication. In this work, we demonstrate an application of optical communication by creating a communications link consisting of a data transmitter and receiver. The optical carrier signals are generated by pumping a microresonator ring and accessing the Kerr optical frequency comb. This comb is obtained by slow tuning through the resonance so it is not a mode-locked soliton comb however it is stable enough to use for communications purposes. The ease of accessing this MI comb state makes this an attractive method for generating carriers to use in communication systems. The individual wavelengths of the frequency comb are then demultiplexed and modulated with a PAM-4 modulation scheme using an electro-optic intensity modulator. We then receive these transmitted signals and make an estimate of the BER of the received data by considering the eye diagrams of the signals.

 The Kerr microresonator used in our experiments has an FSR of 300 GHz and spans a bandwidth of about 35 THz which generates about 120 different optical frequencies. Considering a 2 Gbps PAM-4 data transmission rate (generated by 1Gbps of NRZ signals) on a single channel, it would be possible to transmit over 240 Gbps through this single optical communications link. Higher transmission rates can be achieved by higher RF modulation data rates or more number of channels (achieved by interleaving two separate combs or reducing FSRs). This large bandwidth combined with the stability of these combs make them an extremely attractive platform for transmission of data at high rates with low BERs.


 
Biography
 
Chinmay Shirpurkar has completed his Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar and is currently pursuing a PhD. in Optics and Photonics from the College of Optics & Photonics (CREOL) at the University of Central Florida. His research interests include ultrafast photonics, metrology and optical communications.

13:45 - 14:15

14:45

Title: All Optical Tunable Beam Splitter Based on Photonic Crystal Waveguides
Seyedhassan Ehsaniamri, USA

Title: All Optical Tunable Beam Splitter Based on Photonic Crystal Waveguides 

Keywords:
Photonic crystal, Tunable beam splitter, Finite difference time domain, induced Kerr nonlinear effect, elliptical cavity

Abstract: In this work we propose a Y- shaped beam splitter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure ,which provides us the ability to control dividing power into two output waveguides by a control optical beam. The optical modeling of this proposed structure was investigated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation. In this scheme, we use the nonlinearity feature of photonic crystal to control the power ratio of the output waveguides. Using the Kerr nonlinearity property and engineering the elliptical cavity’s dimensions or elliptical cavity modes, we can manage the coupling power of the input waveguide to each of the output waveguides. Simulation results show that resonance wavelength shifting occurs in amount of ±15 nm  in elliptical cavity   due to induced kerr nonlinearity as a function of control beam power. 

14:45 - 15:15

15:45

Title: Mamyshev oscillators: the path to robust ultrafast all-fiber lasers
Olivier, M, COPL (Université Laval), Canada

Mamyshev oscillators constitute a new class of ultrafast fiber lasers. They achieve mode locking through the combined effect of nonlinear spectral broadening and the presence of two offset spectral filters in the laser cavity. This concept was introduced a few decades ago and, in 2008, it was suggested to apply it to fiber lasers. Recently, Mamyshev oscillators based on ytterbium- and erbium-doped fibers emitting femtosecond pulses were demonstrated. Their performances surpassed the performances of other types of ultrafast fiber laser oscillators in terms of pulse energy, pulse duration, spectral bandwidth and peak power by a significant margin. They are now considered as potential competitors to the well-established solid-state lasers in many applications. The main advantages of fiber Mamyshev oscillators are their simplicity, their robustness to environmental perturbations and their low cost.

 

Nonetheless, most Mamyshev oscillators presented so far used optical fibers in conjunction with free-space optical components such as waveplates, isolators, diffraction gratings, etc. All-fiber versions of Mamyshev oscillators would make them much more attractive. Indeed, most of the problems observed in solid-state lasers such as the complexity of the cavities, the need for optical re-alignment, the need for a lot of workspace and many others would be avoided. In this talk, we will thus present the progress we have made in designing all-fiber Mamyshev oscillators based on fiber Bragg grating reflectors.

 

The dynamics of Mamyshev oscillators will be presented with some emphasis on critical issues when designing an all-fiber version. The impact of dispersion, nonlinearity, gain bandwidth and polarization evolution will be discussed. More important, the shape of the reflectivity profiles of the spectral filters will be shown to play a crucial role. Designing the appropriate fiber Bragg gratings was thus a difficult task we achieved.

 

Another important issue for the design of practical Mamyshev oscillators is self-starting operation. As the laser is turned on, it should reach the mode-locked state right away. It is well known that these oscillators do not have the tendency to mode lock. When the filters are too far apart, the cavity emits amplified spontaneous emission. When they are too close, the cavity produces CW emission at an intermediate wavelength where the two filters show some overlap. In between, self-starting is sometimes possible but not always easy. In several cases presented in the literature, the oscillator is started by using an external pulsed laser seed. This adds a layer of complexity to the system. Consequently, in an effort to improve the simplicity and the reliability of Mamyshev oscillators, a few mechanisms to perturb the cavity and force the formation of a pulse were introduced over the past few years. This could be done by modulating the pump power or introducing an external nonlinear arm that could initiate Q-switching and eventually mode lock the Mamyshev oscillator. Some of these alternatives will be discussed.

 

We conclude by presenting an all-fiber 1550-nm Mamyshev oscillator based on fiber Bragg gratings that we designed. This erbium-doped fiber laser generates pulses with an energy above 20 nJ, a duration close to 100 fs at a repetition rate of 9 MHz. It shows an efficiency of more than 20 % relative to the launched pump power. This level of performance for what is, arguably, the simplest ultrafast fiber laser architecture so far, demonstrates that all-fiber Mamyshev oscillators have great potential.

15:45 - 16:15

16:15

Networking Session @ MAGNOLIA HALWY

16:15 - 16:30

William W. Arrasmith, PhD Florida Institute of Technology, United States

High-speed, High-accuracy Direct General Transfer Function Estimation Using a newWell-Optimized LinearFinder (WOLF) Method with Application to Diversity-based Atmospheric Turbulence Compensated Imaging Systems

A new high-speed, high-accuracy general transfer function estimation method is presented that has been found to be faster and more accurate than traditional methods used in transfer function estimation/blind-deconvolution problems such as removing atmospheric turbulence from coherent and incoherent optical imagery.  Our new Well-Optimized Linear Finder (WOLF) method applies across the electromagnetic and acoustic spectrum and benefits any linear/linear shift-invariant (or linearizable) system where channel aberrations can be well-modeled as phase aberrations.  A representative example of these type of aberrations are atmospheric aberrations found in imaging systems that are dominated by near-field atmospheric turbulence such as ground-to-air, or ground-to-space imaging systems. Our correlation-based method is implemented entirely in the spatial frequency domain and takes advantage of transfer function phase redundancies in the transfer function’s complex exponential entrance pupil plane phase difference chains.  In traditional methods, for imaging systems with a large number of pixels (or equivalently a large number of entrance pupil plane samples), up to millions of complex exponential phase differences need to be determined and summed at discrete points of the Optical Transfer Function (OTF).  In our WOLF method, these millions of complex exponential phase difference sums have been reduced to a requirement of no more than the sum of 3 complex exponential phase difference terms at any point of the OTF.  Additionally, unlike many traditional blind deconvolution methods that use iterative, weighted basis function expansion methods to estimate entrance pupil plane phase aberrations, our WOLF method is a single iteration method capable of exactly reproducing the entrance pupil plane phase given adequate entrance pupil plane sampling. Also, due to symmetries and the inherent phase redundancies in the OTF, only a subset of the OTF points need to be evaluated to fully determine the entrance pupil plane phase aberrations, further reducing the computational requirements of the WOLF method.  As an example, we demonstrate the WOLF method on a simulated diversity-based imaging system using a statistically accurate realization of the Earth’s atmosphere based on the Kolmogorov atmospheric model.   We apply the atmospheric aberrations to a pair of 256 by 256 images (image and diversity image) and show that on a 2014 MacBook Pro computer with a 2.8 GHz Quad-Core Intel Core i7 processor with 16 GB of 1600 MHz DDR3 memory and running Matlab 2020b, the nonoptimized, non-parallel implementation of the WOLF method can reconstruct the turbulence free, diffraction-limited image in approximately 8 seconds.  Our WOLF method is implementable using parallel processing technologies such as the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) on a conventional laptop computer and/or Field Programmable Gated Array technologies with expected real-time (faster than 30 Hz) performance for software-dominant transfer function estimation/blind deconvolution/atmospheric turbulence compensation problems.  The effects of additive Gaussian noise on the WOLF method are also presented.


 Key Words:  General Transfer Function Estimation, Adaptive Optics, Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation, Blind Deconvolution Methods

View Biography

16:00

Title: Breathing mode phenomena in the properties of the compact bright light pulse
Mabou Kamgaing William
University of Maroua, Cameroon

16:00 - 16:30

Speakers Slots Available

Speakers Slots Available

AWARDS AND CERTIFICATES ISSUANCE CONFERENCE CLOSING CERMONY

Sergio Fantini, Tufts University, USA
Fellow, American Institute for Medical & Biological Engineering (AIMBE)
Fellow, The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
2004: Graduate Student Council's Award for Outstanding Faculty
Contribution to Graduate Studies, Tufts University
2001: Outstanding Faculty Award, Tufts University

Dual slopes in diffuse optics

 Slope methods based on data collection at multiple source-detector separations have been widely used in the field of diffuse optics, especially in continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). These slope techniques are typically based on a single source (and multiple detectors) or a single detector (and multiple sources), in which case they may be termed “single-slope” methods. Single-slope measurements are largely insensitive to instrumental and optical coupling effects associated with the single element. In the late 1990’s, a dual-slope approach, identified as “self-calibrating,” was introduced to perform slope measurements that are insensitive to instrumental and coupling effects associated with both sources and detectors, resulting in calibration-free measurements of the optical properties of highly scattering media. The source-detector arrangement of this self-calibrating approach was adopted by research groups and tissue oximetry companies to achieve robust measurements of the effective attenuation coefficient (with CW-NIRS) or the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (with FD-NIRS) of highly scattering media such as biological tissue. Recently, dual-slope measurements, especially those based on the phase of photon-density waves in FD-NIRS or the mean photon time-of-flight in TD-NIRS, were shown to feature the additional property of being selectively sensitive to deeper layers of the sample, which is desirable in non-invasive biomedical applications that target deeper tissue (brain, skeletal muscle, etc.). In this presentation, we will review slope methods, and we will report latest developments in our group for the characterization and advancement of dual-slope methods. In particular, we will demonstrate the insensitivity of dual slopes on instrumental factors associated with both sources and detectors, describe the measurement of absorption changes using either intensity dual slopes (in CWNIRS) or phase dual slopes (in FD-NIRS), illustrate the regions of sensitivity of dual slopes in homogeneous and inhomogeneous media, discuss considerations for the design of source-detector arrays for dual-slope imaging, and report initial in vivo dual-slope measurements in human subjects for broadband spectroscopy, spatial mapping of tissue hemodynamics, and time-frequency characterization of oscillatory hemodynamics. Dual-slope measurements feature desirable aspects of practical and conceptual significance that can help advance a number of spectroscopy and imaging applications in the field of diffuse optics.

View Biography

Boris Gramatikov, Ophthalmic Instrumentation Development Laboratory
Wilmer Eye Institute
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA
Ophthalmic polarization-sensitive diagnostic technologies employing retinal birefringence scanning

Retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) has recently been used to detect central fixation and proper eye alignment in ophthalmic diagnostics. It utilizes the property of the Henle fibers surrounding the human fovea to change the polarization state of light in a double-pass polarization-sensitive optical system.  This principle has been employed in a series of vision screeners developed in our lab.  They allow eye tracking and detection of central fixation using anatomical information directly from the fovea and without calibration, unlike other eye tracking methods that employ less accurate pupillary light reflex methods. In a binocular setting, RBS facilitates precise checking for eye alignment. These instruments have proven to be valuable in early detection of amblyopia and strabismus. Such systems are particularly useful when working with young children.  The presentation focuses on a family of pediatric vision screeners and includes design optimization using a computer model of polarization-sensitive systems.

The usage can be expanded to add a fixation detection function to other ophthalmic technologies, such as laser-doppler flowmetry, fundus cameras, OCT devices, etc.  As an example, a hybrid system integrating optical coherence tomography and retinal birefringence scanning is presented. It acquires and/or analyzes data only during moments of central fixation. This can significantly reduce the image processing time, and shorten the exam duration. Methods to attract the subject’s attention and ensure fixation are also discussed.

Special attention is paid to possible implementation of no-moving-part technologies, liquid crystal technologies, and clinical testing. Related topics will be discussed, such as automatic detection and correction of ocular defocus in vision screening, laser safety, decision making logic, and others.

The talk will be interesting to ophthalmologists, optometrists, medical students, biomedical engineers and physicists, as well as health care managers and general practitioners.

 

View Biography

Indu Fiesler Saxena
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc, United States

Bernard Dam Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Co-chair, e-Refinery institute on electrochemical conversion

Title:  Long-range, hysteresis-free and fast optical hydrogen sensing using transition metal hydrides.

Thin film metal hydride based optical hydrogen sensors provide an attractive option to sense hydrogen in a variety of conditions and have an attractive safety benefit over other methods of detection: They do not require the presence of electrical leads near the sensing area. These sensors rely on a change of the optical properties arising from a change in the hydrogenation of the metal hydride sensing layer in response to a different partial hydrogen pressure in the environment of the sensor. Often Pd-alloys are being used for this, since this material displays an optical change and is able to catalyse the hydrogen sorption. By using Pd-capped transition metals we split the catalytic and the sensing action which allows us to optimize both the kinetics, the optical contrast and the sensing range of the material. We demonstrate that Pd-capped Hf and Ta based thin films provide excellent opportunities to create sensors with a wide sensing range. In particular, Ta1−yPdy alloys allow for an extremely wide sensing ranges of at least seven orders of magnitude in hydrogen pressure. Nanoconfinement of the Ta1−yPdy layer suppresses the first-order phase transitions present in bulk and ensures a sensing response free of any hysteresis within a single thermodynamic phase. Unlike other sensing materials, Ta1−yPdy features the special property that the sensing range can be easily tuned by varying the Pd concentration without a reduction of the sensitivity of the sensing material. Combined with a suitable capping layer, sub-second response times can be achieved even at room temperature, faster than any other known thin-film hydrogen sensor.

View Biography

Nooshafarin Kazemikhoo
University of New South Wales, Australia

Effect of photo biomodulation on the healing process of donor site in patients with grade 3 burn ulcer after skin graft surgery (a randomized clinical trial)

 Skin graft is a standard therapeutic technique in patients with deep ulcers but managing donor site after grafting is very important. Although several modern dressings are available to enhance the comfort of donor site, using techniques that accelerate wound healing may enhance patient satisfaction. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in several medical fields, including healing of diabetic, surgical, and pressure ulcers, but there is not any report of using this method for healing of donor site in burn patients. The protocols and informed consent were reviewed according to Medical Ethics Board of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.REC.1394.363) and Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2016020226069N2). Eighteen donor sites in 11 patients with grade 3 burn ulcer were selected. Donor areas were divided into 2 parts, for laser irradiation and control randomly. Laser area was irradiated by a red, 655-nm laser light, 150 mW, 2 J/cm2, on days 0 (immediately after surgery), 3, 5, and 7. Dressing and other therapeutic care for both sites were the same. The patients and the person who analysed the results were blinded. The size of donor site reduced in both groups during the 7-day study period (P < 0.01) and this reduction was significantly greater in the laser group (P = 0.01). In the present study, for the first time, we evaluate the effects of LLLT on the healing process of donor site in burn patients. The results showed that local irradiation of red laser accelerates wound healing process significantly.

 

View Biography

Edgar Mendoza, President, CEO, Redondo Optics, United States

Title: Wearable Personal Point-of-Care Multi-Parameter Vital-Sign Physiology Optical Sensing Monitor (VISIOM™) System. 

The goal of this work is the development, testing, and demonstration of a unique cost affordable, autonomous, non-invasive, safe, reliable, and easily wearable personal point-of-care multi-parameter, vitalsign physiology optical sensing monitor (VISIOM™) system based on the use of wearable “SmartPhysiology” garments – underwear, knit shirts, pants, lined jackets, sleep shorts, sports-wear, sacks, and others – that seamlessly integrate a multiplex distributed array of fiber optic sensors weaved within the wearable garment fabrics suitable for the real-time, in-situ un-intrusive monitoring of basic biomechanical and biochemical physiological parameters such as body movement and shock, temperature, bloodpressure, respiration rate, hearth rhythm, blood oxygenation, CO2 level, hydration level, sweat constituents (pH, salts, minerals, glucose, lactose, insulin), among many others. The end result of the VISIOM™ “SmartPhysiology” development and demonstration program will result in the production of wearable “Smart” vitalsign sensing garments no different from common personal wardrobes but with the added benefit of enabling autonomous and seamless real time monitoring of the user’s physiology health state. The Covid-19 pandemic has had a staggering effect on personal care. Today’s Covid’s virus exposure to the world population has created a critical need for point-of-care personal-health vital-sign physiological condition monitoring is highly desirable.

View Biography

Igor Meglinski, Node Leader, Biophotonics 4 Life Worldwide Consortium (BP4L) Senior Member, IEEE, Chartered Physicist, Chartered Engineer Fellow of Institute of Physics & Fellow of SPIE. Aston University, UK

Title: Spin Angular Momentum of Light In Digital Histopathology

In the last decade, consistent and successful innovations have been achieved in the field of lasers and optics, collectively known as ‘photonics’, founding new practical applications from space (by NASA) to modern biology, medicine and consumer good devices, offering since recently the wearable gear (e.g. Apple Watch). While the global photonics market has reached nowadays €600 billion, only 20% of the potential power and benefits of light technologies have been unlocked so far. Light can be more complicated and structurally diverse, i.e. the light beams can be radially or azimuthally polarized, carrying so-called spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM), related to their spatial structure. While using the polarization of light in various biomedical applications has already known for years, the interaction of SAM/OAM light with cells has not yet been explored, and has been added to the potential practical toolkit only recently. We examine the use of fundamental properties of complex structured light with the ultimate aim to develop novel non-invasive optical diagnosis of cells and biological tissues with the highest possible sensitivity. With the systematic investigation of influence of cell structure malformation on the SAM and/or OAM of light and their changes due to multiple scattering we develop robust experimental systems/approaches suitable for routine clinical applications. In current presentation we introduce an automated stand-alone approach for segmentation of the abnormal regions in paraffin-embedded tissue block that are in good agreement with the ground truth provided by standard pathological analysis. The proposed approach provides a high potential to revolutionize routine procedures in frame of current practice of histological clinical tests

View Biography

Zhongping
University of California, United States
Fellow, American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE)
Fellow, SPIE & Optical Society of America

Frontier in Optical Coherence Tomography: Doppler OCT, OCTA, and Optical Coherence Elastography

 Doppler OCT, a technology that we developed almost 25 years ago, is one of the fastest growing areas of biomedical optics with many potential clinical applications.  I will describe the latest advances in Doppler OCT and OCT angiography. In addition, I will report the development of an acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) technology to characterize tissues biomechanical properties based on Doppler OCT. Knowledge of tissue mechanical properties provides valuable medical information in disease diagnosis and prognosis. There is a close correlation between tissue elasticity and pathology. We recently demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge, the first in vivo OCE imaging of retina and lens in animal model.  The ARF-OCE technology will have a broad range of clinical applications, including imaging and evaluating ophthalmic diseases such as keratoconus, myopia, presbyopia, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma.  The challenges and opportunities in translational this technology for clinical application in ophthalmology will be discussed.

View Biography

Francesco Poletti
University of Southampton, UK

 The latest generation of hollow core fibres outperforms conventional all-solid fibre technology in many aspects. We will review the technology, its latest records and applications, and forecast what might be possible in a few years’ time.

View Biography

Josef Vojtech, CESNET, Czechia
Transmission of Precise Time and Ultrastable Optical Frequency within Telecommunication Networks

 Presentation provides overview of fibre based infrastructure for Precise Time and Ultrastable Optical Frequency dissemination under development, overspreading from Czech Republic to Vienna and borders with Poland. Attention will be also given to other initiatives on European level and project Clock Network Services-Design Study (CLONETS-DS) aiming to establish a pan-European time and frequency reference system as a European Research Infrastructure. to serve the European science community.

View Biography

Khaled Sarayeddine
CTO & Co-Founder, Optinvent, United States
Inventor, New display systems, Disruptive Technologies

Display optics Challenges for AR Smart Glasses. The monolithic plastic optics solution

All attempts to introduce consumer augmented reality (AR) smart glasses have failed so far because they have never managed to look like “normal glasses”. None have gained significant traction with consumers because nobody wants to wear ugly, heavy and uncomfortable computing devices on their face. The problem is not industrial design. There are several technology breakthroughs required, but first and foremost is the see-through display which is at the heart of the smart glass product. Large FOV, high pixel per degree resolution, high power efficiency, excellent transparency, high visual comfort, and clearance are required while maintaining small size and weight for the display.  Furthermore, the combiner in front of the wearer’s eye cannot be made using a breakable glass substrate.  This is a showstopper.  Unbreakable plastic is the only long-term solution for consumers to confidently adopt this technology.

The presentation will give an overview of on the state of the art of display technologies for AR displays and will explain the solution developed by Optinvent based on its monolithic plastic light guide combiner that meets the above-mentioned requirements and offers a scalable, low-cost solution for the manufacturing.

View Biography

Wojciech Suder, Cranfield University, UK

Challenges in high power laser processing

 Lasers enable precise control of spatial and temporal energy, high precision, directionality, non-contact interaction with materials and delivery of well-defined wavelength. This makes them one of the most flexible tools widely used in various applications of material processing. However, most manufacturing processes use simple axisymmetric heat sources, and the processing parameters are often developed based on a parametric approach, without considering the material requirements and therefore not utilising the full potential of lasers. Most advanced materials require a careful control of applied energy, which can only be achieved with accurately controlled energy profiles tailored to a particular case. The energy profile and its delivery rate determine the interactions with the material, such as the heating rate, extent of melting or vaporisation, temperature gradient and driven by it melt flow, solidification rate and microstructural development. This, in turn, controls the final product, such as weld bead shape and mechanical properties in welding, cut roughness in cutting, quality of ablated surface in machining or smoothness and dimensions of deposited beads in additive manufacture. This work shows the importance of understanding laser material interaction and the role of optics in the control of delivered energy. Different high power laser processes were investigated with the emphasis on the material’s response to the applied energy and its effect on the final product. The results show that to utilize all benefits of lasers and achieve highly controllable, robust and efficient laser processing, a new type of optical systems with tuneable temporal and spatial output, integrated real-time process monitoring and smart processing algorithms are needed. This opens new possibilities for smart laser processing.

View Biography

Niloy K.Dutta
University of Connecticut, United States
Life Fellow: The Institute of Electrical Engineers
Fellow: Optical Society of America
International Society of Optical Engineers
Member, Connecticut Academy of Science & Engineering

Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers for Optical logic Applications

 

All-optical Boolean logic functions AND, XOR and NOT using semiconductor optical amplifiers with quantum-dot (QD) active layers is studied at 40 and 80Gb/s. A rate equation model has been developed which includes nonlinear dynamics including carrier heating, spectral hole-burning, and carrier relaxation. Results show that the QD excited state and wetting layer serve as reservoir of carriers, and, the ultra fast carrier relaxation from these layers, results in high speed Boolean logic operations. Logic operation can be carried out up to speed of 250 Gb/s. Pseudo-random bit stream generation (PRBS) and optical encryption and decryption circuits has been studied.

 

View Biography

Lingyan Shi UCSD bioengineering, United States
Discoverer, Heavy water labeling a relatively new imaging method
Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy
Discoverer, Golden Optical Window
Optical Metabolic imaging of Cells and Tissues

View Biography

Binlin Wu Southern Connecticut State University, United States

View Biography

Oomman K. Varghese, 9th of ‘World's Top 100 Materials Scientists’ in the past decade
University of Houston, United States
2014, 2015 & 2016: Highly Cited Researcher Award

View Biography

Travis J.A. Craddock
Nova Southeastern University, United States
Director, Clinical Systems Biology Group
Institute for Neuro-Immune Medicine
Departments of Psychology & Neuroscience, Computer Science, & Immunology
Nova Southeastern University
Fort Lauderdale, United States

Microtubules are self-assembling biological nanotubes made of the protein tubulin that are essential for cell motility, cell architecture, cell division and intracellular trafficking. The unique mechanical properties of microtubules give rise to a high resilience and stiffness due to their quasi-crystalline helical structure. It has been theorized that this hollow molecular nanostructure may function like a quantum wire where optical transitions can take place, where photo-induced changes in microtubule architecture may be mediated via changes in disulfide or peptide bonds or stimulated by photoexcitation of tryptophan, tyrosine or phenylalanine groups, resulting in subtle protein structural changes owing to alterations in aromatic flexibility. Here we present the Raman scattering spectra of microtubules and its constituent protein tubulin in both dry powdered form and in aqueous solution and determine if molecular bond vibrations show active Fano resonances which are indicative of quantum coupling between discrete phonon vibrational states and continuous excitonic many-body spectra.

 

 

View Biography

Sendy Phang
George Green Institute for Electromagnetics Research, UK
2017: Young Scientist Award(URSI General Assembly)

A traffic light diagnostic inspired by neuromorphic system

Neuroscience has found that humans’ instantaneous capability of perceiving colours is not only because of a simple sensing process but also as the result of “decision making process”. While the first process relies only on the unique colour-dependent receptor in the retina, the latter process involves with how the optical-nerve signal is process throughout its “chaotic” journey from the retina to the brain. Recently, a new paradigm in Artificial Neural Network (ANN) called Reservoir Computer (RC) has been reported. The RC, unlike other kind of ANN approaches, embraces chaotic signal propagation in its kernel layer and feedback system in its read-out layer, mimicking how brain process information.

In this talk, we propose a real-time diagnostic tool inspired by the RC. We will show a possible route of implementing such RNN as an integrated photonic system to perform a bespoke discrimination task. The discrimination is achieved by recognising the unique temporal signal signature arising from the chaotic photonic kernel in the presence of different analyte. This is noted that the new discrimination approach reported is performed directly on the temporal signal, in contrast to the conventional spectral fingerprinting.  

View Biography

Yang Pu, Chief Technology Officer (CTO) of Davinci Applied Technologies Inc., USA

Bridging the gap between optics and life science using Photoacoustic and nonlinear optical microscopy

 Although near-IR light can reach several centimeters into tissue, it will likely have undergone hundreds of scattering events. A scrambled photon path inhibits effective optical focusing. Fortunately, ultrasonic waves induced by photons in tissue are scattered much less. y combination of optical excitation with ultrasonic detection, Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) techniue, a hybrid imaging modality, acoustically detects optical absorption contrast via the photoacoustic (PA) effect. PAI has a deep penetration depth that is comparable with ultrasound imaging and can monitor multiple independent optical reporters simultaneously in vivo based upon wavelength. PAI is sensitive to optical absorption contrasts by pumping the characteristic peaks of the key molecules in biological tissue and is able to penetrate deep tissue comparable with ultrasound. Combining with nanosecond (ns) pulse laser excitation at different wavelengths, this techniue can monitor multiple independent optical reporters simultaneously in vivo based upon characteristic wavelength of molecules of our interest. These advantages make PAI unmatched in comparison with any other in vivo optical-based imaging techniues. Photoacoustic technology is available to help advance life science research in neuroscience, cell biology, and in vivo imaging. In this presentation, we will review PAI techniues, from PA effect to photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), the development of optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), functional brain imaging, and therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drug monitoring glioma treatment in small animal models. Solid-state nanosecond (ns) lasers are the optimal excitation source widely used in PAI to induce PA effect. This type of laser outperforms other types of lasers in PA applications. Therefore, the concept and design of solid-state lasers will be illustrated to emphasize their application in PAI techniue. The results demonstrated that high spatial resolution OR-PAM systems with ns pulse lasers at selective wavelengths are promising approaches for future brain imaging, label-free tumor imaging, drug therapeutic effect and delivery monitoring, and other important biological and biomedical applications.  For the future outlook, we will address two bottlenecks that impede the wide-spread implementation of PAI 1) high energy laser and 2) corresponding multichannel data acuisition (DA) electronics, which cause unaffordable high cost for the PAI system. Combination of ORPAM and nonlinear optical microscopy technologies is another promising direction since it allows pathologists to gain the molecular information as well as enough information for traditional pathology which they were trained since their career. If success, it will cause the revolutionary advancement of the regulations of current pathology in cancer detection and cancer grading system. 

View Biography

16:30

Title: How to prepare for life during and after graduate school
Piracha
AEye Inc., California, USA

Dr. Mohammad Umar Piracha received his PhD degree from the College of Optics (CREOL) at the University of Central Florida, where he developed a long range Lidar system using a mode locked laser, under the supervision of Prof. Peter Delfyett. He has been involved with several startups, including Luminar Technologies, and IMEC-USA. Dr. Piracha has 32 conference and journal publications, and 3 patents. He serves as a reviewer for NSF's SBIR program, and is currently working as a Staff Lidar Systems Engineer at AEye Inc., California.

16:30 - 17:00

Heinz W. Siesler Heinz W. Siesler, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany

Customer-Affordable Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometers: On-Site Quality Control and Protection against Product Counterfeiting

Recently, miniaturization of Raman, mid-infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) spectro-meters has made substantial progress, and marketing companies predict this segment of instrumentation will have a significant growth rate within the next few years. This increase will launch vibrational spectroscopy into a new era of quality control by in-the-field and on-site analysis.

While the weight of the majority of handheld Raman and MIR spectrometers is still in the    ~1 kg range, the miniaturization of NIR spectrometers has advanced down to the ~100 g level, and developments are under way to integrate them into mobile phones. Thus, based on high-volume manufacturability and significant reduction of costs, numerous companies target primarily with NIR instruments a non-expert user community for consumer applica-tions. Especially from this last-mentioned development, a tremendous potential for everyday life can be expected ranging from food testing to detection of fraud and adulteration in a broad area of materials (pharmaceuticals, textiles, polymers, etc.).

However, contrary to the exaggerated claims of many direct-to-consumer companies that advertise their ‘scanners’ with ‘cloud evaluation of big data’ this presentation will provide an overview on the realistic application potential of these instruments.

View Biography

Ran Gaoa, Beijing Institute of Technology, China
An Data-defined Naïve Bayes based Nonlinear Mitigation Scheme for OAM Mode Division Multiplexed Optical Fiber Communication

In this manuscript, a data-defined naïve Bayes (DNB)-based decision scheme for nonlinear mitigation is presented for an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode-division multiplexed optical fiber communication system. Due to the inherent nonlinearity characteristic of opto-electronic devices, the strong nonlinear impairments are deemed inevitable in OAM mode-division multiplexed transmission, leading to severely nonlinear effects. A DNB algorithm based on the prior probability distribution is adopted to mitigate the strong device nonlinearity of the OAM communication system, which is hard to solve using the conventional approaches due to the complex theoretical model of opto-electronic devices. An experiment using eight-mode OAM with a 32GBaud Nyquist QPSK signal optical fiber communication system is carried out with ring core fiber (RCF) transmission over 10 km to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The experimental results demonstrate that the nonlinear effects on OAM transmission can be effectively mitigated using a DNB-based decision with a bit error rate (BER) reduction of at most 66%. Moreover, compared with other nonlinear decision algorithms based on machine learning, such as support vector machine (SVM) or k-nearest neighbors (KNN), the digital signal processing complexity of the DNB algorithm is significantly reduced..

View Biography

12:30

Title: Hyperfine Filtering on a Multiplicity of Frequency Combs
Lawrence Trask, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics
University of Central Florida, USA

Abstract
 

Optical frequency combs (OFC) have evolved to become an important tool in various applications to date such as spectroscopy, metrology, and high speed communications. An optical frequency comb is defined as a grid of perfectly spaced comb lines (frep) offset by the carrier-envelope-offset frequency (fceo). Each nth comb line is uniquely defined by the relationship fn =nfrep+fceo. Knowledge and control of both parameters is required for many applications. Determining frep is simple, however, fceo is difficult to obtain. fceo can be obtained and compensated for using f-2f interferometry and a PID loop, but requires a coherent octave.
 

Recently, electro-optic modulated (EOM) combs have been shown to be a simple and robust method for generating OFC. A limiting factor for EOM combs to obtain a well-defined fceo beat signal is the background noise increase due to multiplication of the RF driving signal noise on each line without a filtering mechanism. Optical filtering for an EOM comb has been the only method demonstrated to obtain fceo using f-2f interferometry.
 

We demonstrate optical filtering of an EOM comb by first stabilizing a CW laser to an ultra-high finesse (100k finesse) etalon with a 15 kHz passband. After stabilizing the CW laser, we pass it through two low V phase modulators and one intensity modulator all driven at ~10 GHz. The EOM comb has an optical bandwidth of 440 GHz within a 10 dB deviation and a pulse duration of 2.46 ps. Finally, we use a modified PDH setup to lock a tunable etalon (1k finesse) to the EOM comb. We find that although the tunable etalon filters high frequency noise, the noise close in to the carrier increases due to the finite bandwidth of locking electronics and finite response of piezoelectrics. The increase in noise close to the carrier increases the timing jitter from to 25.68 fs to 54.06 fs (1 Hz – 100 MHz).
  Ongoing research for an alternative method of generating filtered EOM combs is underway in which all comb lines are simultaneously filtered and stabilized to a 100k finesse etalon. We believe this approach may produce lower timing jitter and better stability.

Biography
      
Lawrence Trask received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA, in 2016. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in optics and photonics at CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

12:30 - 13:00

Niti Kant Lovely Professional University, India
Generation Of Thz Radiation By Laser In Magnetized Plasma With Density Ripple

 

Generation of Terahertz (THz) radiation by using two high power lasers of slightly different frequencies beating in plasma with density ripple in the presence of static magnetic field has been studied. If p-polarized lasers propagating in x-z plane and incident obliquely to density ripple then they exert ponderomotive force on electrons due to nonlinear coupling. Under the influence of the ponderomotive force the plasma electrons start oscillating. This oscillatory velocity contributes with the density ripple to produce non-linear current density at difference frequency of incident lasers. This nonlinear current density urges a wave whose frequency is in THz range. The external static magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of propagating lasers can be utilized to enhance the nonlinear coupling between plasma wave and electromagnetic wave and also to control various parameters of generated THz wave. The THz power rises with the magnetic field strength and scales as the square of the density ripple amplitude.

Key Words: Terahertz radiation, Magnetized plasma, Density ripple, Obliquely incident lasers.

View Biography

Zhao Xiong
Research Center of Laser Fusion
China Academy of Engineering Physics, China

Engineering progress and innovations of large optics assembly in XX-Ⅲ Laser Facility

View Biography

M. S. Mani Rajan, Anna University, India
Photonic Crystal Fiber based Optical sensors

View Biography

Henry J. Meyer, Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Department of Physics, The City College of the City University of New York,

Title: Femtosecond Conical Emission in BK-7 Glass and the Influence of the Transient Kerr Nonlinear Index

The angle of Conical Emission (CE) was measured using a 50 fs 800 nm laser in BK-7 glass. The result covers a long-range emission range of +9000 to -2000 cm-1. This span encompasses both degenerate Anti-Stokes and Stokes emission, as well as non-degenerate angular emission at the source wavelength. The resulting angle is compared to three different mathematical models of CE. In all three emission windows the Alfano-Shapiro model from 1970 outperforms both the X-Wave model as well as the Luther Four Wave Mixing model. Following the Alfano-Shapiro model the measured non-degenerate emission is directly related to the Kerr nonlinear index. The presented fitting result confirms that for a 50 fs pulse the Kerr index has transition into its pure electronic state, as incorporating the slower material components breaks the agreement with the model. The near perfect fit between the Alfano-Shapiro model and the experimental results suggests that the method outlined here could be used as a new easy way to measure the Kerr nonlinear index.

View Biography